All athletes desire to be in the best possible physical and mental state on the day of the goal race. For an endurance athlete, e.g., But being able to be in our best condition on race day usually causes us a lot of stress, especially for beginner athletes who lack the relevant experience. To achieve this, we need to have a proper periodicity in our training during the macrocycle.
The formulation is important and perhaps the most difficult phase of our training macrocycle, as there are still many questions to which scientific research cannot give clear answers. Given the many unanswered questions and the complexity of the phenomenon, many are talking about the “art of molding.” There are several definitions in the literature that all describe the reduction in training load. The benefits are standard and psychological. Many of the physiological benefits and their association with performance improvement are not known in the scientific community involved in athletic molding.
There have been several studies since the 1980s that have examined the various physiological responses of athletes to the formulation and related to the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, hormonal, neuromuscular, hematological and immune systems of the human body. Hematological. We have a definite increase in the erythropoiesis balance to hemolysis. So we have an increase in the number of red blood cells. At the same time, we have an increase in the volume of already existing batteries. Hematological change causes improvement in athletic performance. In particular, it should be noted that hemoglobin and hematocrit increase. I
t should be noted that in the formulation, we increase the maximum concentration of lactic acid to maximize effort and decrease or maintain the levels of lactic acid in the blood and muscle at sub-maximal intensities — muscle rehabilitation. Creatine kinase (CK) concentration is reduced in the blood, which may indicate that all the “microbes” of the musculoskeletal system caused by the daily and strenuous marathon training are waiting to be corrected.
The more muscle fibers we can activate, the more power we can produce — neuromuscular changes. We have an increase in both muscle strength and maximal muscle power — hormonal markers. The concentration of testosterone, the ratio of testosterone to cortisol, etc., often changes, and these changes are related to the athletic performance of the athlete. Specifically, the concentration of testosterone increases, the cortisol decreases, and naturally, the volume of testosterone to cortisol increases. Chances of injury are reduced.
Injuries to the molding season are rare unless the athlete/runner has an unfortunate time or exceeds the intensity in some interval workouts. They are strengthening the immune system. The number of white blood cells increases significantly, and this helps in healing the inflammation as well as strengthening the immune system. This reduces injuries and viruses in this period. Psychological changes improving athletes’ mental state, reducing subjective fatigue and personal effort, as well as improving sleep quality.
Increase in glycogen stocks, which is an essential factor in marathon energy coverage. Many of the above data have been pointed out by other researchers, such as Houmard et al. Increase in muscle strength. They are improving the road economy. Increase the maximum force. They are improving the mood of the athlete. Muscle strength and power can be dramatically improved: 8-25% (Joyce & Lewindon, 2013) in runners, swimmers, triathletes, and other endurance athletes.
Overall, if formatting is successful, even top-level athletes can achieve a 3% improvement with the condition that the last 4-28 days will be “run” correctly. To give an example, it is indicative that a 3 hour 2% marathoner has a 3.6-minute improvement while an 8% improvement would mean 14.4 minutes improvement. One basic principle to keep in mind when choosing a molding method is that a sharp reduction in training loads entails a high risk of losing adjustments made during the primary and pre-training periods. Answer: For each sport, a different training protocol is followed, different for swimming than for running.