Cold, heat, rain, thunder, humidity, height. None of these factors usually stop most enthusiastic athletes, but there are always health reasons that need to be considered. Many times the love of sport makes us forget about our health care, especially when faced with long trials and extreme environmental conditions, where we take our body to its limits. 36.1 – 37.8 degrees Celsius, this is because slight deviations can lead to significant damage to health (we think we are already 39 degrees suffering from fever).
The primary way we can get heat is through our body’s metabolism, physical activity, muscular reflexes, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, among others. Driving: refers to the transfer of heat by direct contact between two bodies (for example, when handing to another person or transferring heat to an object).
Transport: heat or gas transfer (happens, for example, depends on the speed of the wind we are dealing with. Radiation: infrared temperature transfer without direct physical contact (sunlight). , up to 70% of body heat is thus lost at room temperature Evaporation: It is the loss of heat through evaporation of liquids, this path becomes more critical when we are in full physical activity (the characteristic of blend is useful sweating and breathing) Maintaining a demanding physical effort in a warm environment establishes a competitive position between active muscles (especially the lower limbs in the case of running or cycling) and the skin for limited blood supply.
Exercise requires a great deal of blood and oxygen to maintain mechanical activity. On the other hand, the skin needs blood to facilitate the loss of heat through sweating to seek to survive. Keep the body at a somewhat cold temperature. Also, we must consider that competition for blood volume produces a gradual increase in heart rate, which is not favorable.
It is damage to our health caused by extremely high temperatures and occurs when thermoregulators are offset by either environmental factors (temperature, humidity, wind, solar radiation) or individual preparation factors (such as clothing and acclimatization). They are painful muscle spasms in response to intense and prolonged exercise in hot conditions.
Causes: Mainly due to excessive loss of water and sodium in addition to depletion of energy reserves. Treatment: Basics of relaxation, muscle extension work, hydration and replacement of sodium and simple sugars. Prevention: Proper hydration guide before and during sports practice and increased sodium intake up to 8 – 10 grams per day, if necessary.
This table refers to the inability to continue the exercise with or without a collapse in a warm or humid environment. This is due to the failure of the cardiovascular system to meet the body’s needs, given the volume of blood reduced by dehydration. The calibration mechanisms are still operating, but not at the required speed and efficiency.
Causes: cause the need to achieve central fatigue with peripheral vasodilation, relative dehydration, and depletion of energy deposits. People who are overweight and play sports in a warm, humid, and damp environment are more likely to suffer from it. Symptoms and Signs: include headache, tachycardia, incontinence, dizziness, instability, paleness, nausea, vomiting, and irritability.
Early versions of the Olympics we have seen athletes are getting almost unconscious with the latest marathon test trials, where the medical services that accompany his final trip without interference. This time has changed because health professionals have to remove a competitive athlete if they find that they are endangering their lives. Treatment: The first thing in this emergency is to call the nearest emergency service. When it arrives, the athlete’s excess clothing, body water, cold or cold air must continuously be removed and hydrated (in this case usually intravenously). There are many sports (especially in winter) that expose us to shallow temperatures. Among these sports are snowboarding, skiing, mountain sports and those practicing water (especially open water tests).